Published 2nd April, 2020
In January 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of a new coronavirus disease in Hubei Province, China, to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, as there was a high risk of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) spreading to other countries around the world. As of 2nd April 2020, more than 896,450 cases have been confirmed in more than 200 countries, more than 45,526 people have died from the disease, but about 135,000 have also already recovered since the outbreak started. The EAC region did not stay unaffected and has to date confirmed cases in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Most infected people developed only mild symptoms and the average global death rate among confirmed cases of about 4 % is low compared to that of other infectious diseases which we are facing in the region, such as HIV/AIDS, Measles or Ebola. This rate might be almost 10 times higher than average for those over 80, and much lower for those under 40. Most affected by the pandemic is less the health sector, but the economy as a whole, including trade and tourism, as main life-lines in the region.
To succeed in combating the pandemic, all sections of our society including employers and businesses – must play a role and work together. The virus that causes the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain that had not been identified in humans until the outbreak of the disease in 2019.
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that are common in animals and cause illness in humans ranging from a mild cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Other known coronaviruses are circulating in animals without causing illness in humans.
The COVID-19 outbreak has taken its toll on many countries worldwide and has caused huge economic losses with various sectors affected and impacted upon.
In the following we are providing answers to frequently asked questions regarding COVID-19:
+ What is a Coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which occur naturally in animals and may cause illness in animals and humans. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory infections ranging from common colds with mild symptoms to more severe diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered virus in this family causes the Coronavirus Disease, COVID-19.
+ What does COVID-19 stand for?
The Coronavirus Disease is a flu-like respiratory disease that is highly contagious.
+ What is COVID-19?
The Coronavirus Disease is a flu-like respiratory disease that is highly contagious.
+ What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhoea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and don't feel unwell. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment. Around 1 out of every 6 people who gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing.
+ Who is most at risk of catching COVID-19?
All people are at risk once exposed to the virus that causes COVID 19, however, older people, and those with underlying medical conditions like high blood pressure, heart diseases and diabetes or suppressed immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS or cancer, are most at risk and more likely to develop serious symptoms.
+ Do I need to worry about my children?
Cases in which children got infected have also been reported. However, children and even youths seem to be much less affected by the Coronavirus Disease than older people.
+ How does COVID-19 spread?
The disease can spread from person to person either directly through small droplets when an infected person sneezes, coughs or exhales. Or people catch COVID-19 when they touch contaminated objects and surfaces and then touch their eyes, nose or mouth thereby transmitting the virus.
+ How can I prevent myself from getting infected?
The best way to prevent an infection is to avoid exposure to the virus. This can be through thorough hygiene, by avoiding contact with infected people and by keeping a distance of about 6 feet to other people, as the virus spreads mainly from person-to-person and between people who are in close contact with each other. This is especially important for people who are at higher risk of getting very sick.
+ Which hygiene measures are effective?
Clean your hands often by washing them with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
- You can also use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Rub your hands together until they feel dry.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
+ Should I wear a facemask to protect myself against the virus?
Do not need to wear a facemask unless you are sick or are caring for someone who is sick (and they are not able to wear a facemask). Leave the masks to those who really need them.
+ What can I do to protect others if I am sick or have tested positive with the Coronavirus Disease?
Stay home if you’re sick, except to get medical care, even if it is not yet clear if you are infected with the Coronavirus or just suffer from a common cold.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze or use the inside of your elbow and wash it afterwards.
- Throw used tissues in the trash.
- Immediately wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or clean your hands with a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
- Wear a facemask when you are around other people (e.g. when sharing a room or vehicle and before you enter a healthcare centre
- First clean and then disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily, such as tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.
+ Can someone who is released from COVID-19 quarantine still spread the disease?
Someone who has been released from COVID-19 quarantine is no longer considered a risk for spreading the virus because he/she did not develop symptoms during the incubation period.
Quarantine means separating a person (or group of people) who has been exposed to a contagious disease but has not developed symptoms from others who have not been exposed, to prevent the possible spread of that disease.
Quarantine is usually established for the length of the incubation period of the communicable disease, which is the time span during which people would have developed symptoms after exposure. For COVID-19 this period is 14 days from the last date of exposure, because 14 days is the longest incubation period seen for similar coronaviruses.
+ How can I contribute to avoiding stigmatising people related to COVID-19?
Fear and anxiety can lead to social stigma, for example, towards people who were quarantined for COVID-19. Stigma is associated with a lack of knowledge about COVID-19 and how it spreads or with gossip and myths.
You can fight stigma and help, not hurt, others by providing social support. You can counter stigma by learning and sharing facts, for example that viruses do not target specific groups in the population.
+ Is there a treatment for COVID-19?
There is no specific treatment for COVID-19. Don’t believe people who try to sell you remedies and promise that they will cure the disease. Viral diseases can be prevented if a vaccine is available, but they cannot be cured for example with antibiotics. However, supportive cure or treatment can ease accompanying symptoms, such as fever or cough.
+ Is there a vaccine against COVID-19?
So far, no vaccine is available to prevent COVID-19. Patients will receive supportive care and treatment by the health workers to recovery.
+ Must I fear COVID 19?
Every viral disease needs to be taken seriously and COVID-19 is highly contagious. Therefore, it can spread rapidly and infect many people in a short period of time. But, the symptoms of COVID-19 are in most cases mild. Many patients will never even see a doctor. With about 4 % the average death rate for COVID-19 is also rather low compared to other diseases that we are facing in the region. For comparison: The death rate for measles outbreaks of for the Ebola Virus Disease can be above 60 % and up to 100 % of people infected with Rabies will die.
Another example: In China, with a total population of more than 1,4 billion people, only about 80,000 cases of COVID-19 were confirmed.
+ What can I do to ensure my workplace is safe for me and my colleague?
You can reduce working days lost due to illness and stop or slow the spread of COVID-19 if it arrives at your workplaces:
- Make sure your workplace is clean including surfaces (e.g. desks and tables) and objects (e.g. telephones, keyboards). Wipe them with disinfectant regularly;
- Encourage regular and thorough hand-washing by staff and visitors;
- Ensure your workplace has adequate ventilation to allow fresh air to circulate (good respiratory hygiene);
- Keep your colleagues well about COVID-19 and share any new information. But abstain from spreading rumours that have no underlying facts.
+ Is it safe to use public transport (Dalla Dalla or Matatu) with regard to COVID-19?
Passengers in Matatus or Dalla Dallas are usually squeezed, there is no way of keeping a safe distance from a passenger who’s coughing and sneezing and to avoid contamination by droplets from his/her nose and mouth. Therefore, the use of Dalla Dallas is accompanied by a high risk of infection with COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. If at all possible use other means of transport as long as the outbreak of COVID-19 is ongoing as a preventive measure.
+ Can I attend the church service?
This is a very personal decision. Certainly a church service involves a risk of infection as many people gather and sit and stand closely to each other. If you weighed the pros and cons carefully and come to the conclusion that attending the service is more important for you than protecting yourself against a possible COVID-19 infection then you are taking an informed decision. If you attend the service, keep as much distance from the other congregants as possible and avoid shaking hands. You can also address the risk with your pastor or priest and jointly consider how to address the current risk. If you are suffering from COVID-19 do NOT attend the service, as you will put others at high risk.
+ Are Africans less at risk of contracting the COVID-19 compared to other races?
Many myths have started to evolve around COVID-19. One of them states that Africans are immune against the virus. Do not believe in such myths. This disease does not discriminate anybody. Already more than 35 African countries
have reported confirmed cases of the COVID-19 disease, a clear sign that none is safe unless strict protective precautions are undertaken.
+ Does eating bush meat pose a risk for COVID-19 infections?
Bush meat is discussed as the possible source of the current Coronavirus pandemic. Coronaviruses and many other pathogens occur naturally in animals. Therefore, the process of meat production from the animals to the plate needs to follow the strict hygiene rules of food safety. Meat should be inspected by the experts in charge and consumers are advised to cook or fry it thoroughly, until it is no longer raw, but well done.
+ Are patients who recovered from COVID-19 immune against the virus?
It is still too early for a final answer. However, there is scientific evidence that a person who got infected with Covid-19 and recovers develops a certain degree of immunity against the strain of the virus that caused the infection. Scientists in China artificially infected Rhesus monkeys with COVID-19 and infected those who survived again with very high amounts of the virus. None of the re-infected monkeys fell sick again. The immune response of Rhesus monkeys is to a certain extent similar to that of humans. Therefore, experts carefully interpret the experiment to conclude that the course of a new infection in humans who recovered from COVID-19 would at least be much milder.
+ How safe are goods from China?
Scientific experiments showed that the virus that causes COVID-19 can survive on clothes or other surfaces for some hours, depending on other factors like temperature, humidity and so on. Should goods from China have been contaminated with the virus, they travelled a long time before they arrive in the EAC region. Therefore, it is rather unlikely that the virus is still active. However, should “goods” in the local definition also include life animals and should they carry the virus, an infection would theoretically be possible. Therefore, China put into place extensive trade bans on wild and exotic animals.
+ Can I get COVID-19 through second-hand clothes from overseas?
The virus that causes COVID-19 can survive on clothes or other surfaces for some hours, depending on other factors like temperature or humidity. However, if the second-hand clothes came from overseas, they travelled a long time and were disinfected before export as recommended by international standards. This makes it very unlikely that the virus survives in second-hand clothes.
If you are still suspicious and want to be on the absolute safe side, wash the clothes at 60 C or more with washing powder. This will safely kill the virus.
+ What is the difference between the average death rate among confirmed cases and the overall average death rate?
According to World Health Organization estimates the average global death rate among confirmed COVID-19 cases is about 4%
. The overall death rate is much lower because not all infections are confirmed by testing. Most cases, however, go uncounted because people with mild symptoms will never visit the doctor and therefore do not feature in official statistics. Death rates also depend on a range of factors like your age and general health, and the care you can access. The death rate is increasing exponentially in patients above 60 and is much higher in patients with medical pre-conditions such as diabetes, heart or lung diseases. Avoiding infections in this risk group should therefore have highest priority.
Imechapishwa Aprili 3, 2020
Mnamo Januari 2020 Shirika la Afya Duniani (WHO) lilitangaza mlipuko wa ugonjwa mpya wa virusi vya korona katika Mkoa wa Hubei, Uchina, kuwa suala la Hali ya Hatari ya Afya ya Umma Kimataifa kwa sababu ya uwezekano mkubwa wa Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona vya mwaka 2019 (UVIKO-19) kuenea duniani kote. Kufikia Aprili 2 2020, wagonjwa zaidi ya 896, 450 wameambukizwa katika nchi zaidi ya 200, zaidi ya watu 45, 526 wamekufa kutokana na ugonjwa huo, lakini wengine 135,000 pia wametibiwa na kupona tangu kuzuka kwa ugonjwa huo. Katika Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki matukio ya ugonjwa huu wameripotiwa nchini Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda na Tanzania. Watu wengi walioambukizwa huonyesha dalili zisizo kali na kiwango cha takribani 4% cha vifo ulimwenguni ni cha chini kikilinganishwa na magonjwa mengine ya kuambukiza yanayotokea ukanda huu kama vile VVU/UKIMWI, surua au Ebola. Janga hili halijaathiri tu sekta ya afya, bali limeathiri uchumi kwa ujumla, ikiwa ni pamoja na biashara na utalii, ambazo ndio nguzo kuu za maisha katika ukanda huu.
Ili kufanikiwa katika kukabiliana na janga hili, makundi yote katika jamii yetu ikiwa ni pamoja na waajiri na wafanyabiashara – ni lazima yahusike na kushirikiana. Kirusi ambacho husababisha Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona (UVIKO-19) ni cha aina mpya ambacho hakikuwa kimewahi kutokea kwa binadamu hadi ugonjwa huo ulipozuka mwaka wa 2019.
Virusi vya Korona (ViKo) ni kundi kubwa la virusi ambavyo kwa kawaida hupatikana kwa wanyama na husababisha maradhi hatari yanyohusiana na upumuaji kama vile Dalili za Upumuaji za Middle East (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) na Dalili Kali na Hatari za Upumuaji (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS- CoV).
Virusi vya korona huambukizwa baina ya wanyama na watu. Uchunguzi wa kina ulibaini kuwa virusi vikali na hatari vya SARS-CoV viliambukizwa binadamu kutoka paka aina ya ngawa navyo virusi vya upumuaji vya MERS-CoV viliambukizwa binadamu kutoka ngamia wenye nundu moja. Kuna virusi vya korona vingine vinavyojulikana kuwa vinapatikana miongoni mwa wanyama bila kusababisha ugonjwa kwa binadamu.
Mlipuko wa UVIKO-19 umeathiri vibaya nchi nyingi duniani na umesababisha hasara kubwa katiak sekta mbalimbali za kiuchumi.
Katika sehemu ifuatayo tunatoa majibu ya maswali yanayoulizwa mara kwa mara kuhusu UVIKO-19:
+ Virusi vya Korona ni nini?
Virusi vya korona ni kundi kubwa la virusi ambayvo kwa kawaida hupatikana miongoni mwa wanyama na vinaweza kusababisha ugonjwa kwa wanyama na binadamu. Kwa binadamu, virusi vya korona husababisha magonjwa ya kupumua kama vile homa ya kawaida isiyo na dalili kali na Dalili za Upumuaji za Middle East (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) na Dalili Kali na Hatari za Upumuaji (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Virusi vilivyopatikana hivi karibuni husababisha Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona, UVIKO-19.
+ Nini maana ya UVIKO-19?
UVIKO-19 ni kifupisho cha Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona. Katika Kiingereza, UVIKO ni COVID (Corona Virus Disease). Katika kifupisho UVIKO-19, 'U' kinawakilisha 'Ugonjwa,' 'VI' 'Virusi,' na 'KO' ni Korona. Jina ‘COVID’ linafuata taratibu za Shirika la Afya Duniani (WHO) za kutaja magonjwa mapya ya kuambukiza kwa binadamu.
+ UVIKO-19 ni nini?
Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona unafanana na homa ya mafua inayoambukizwa kwa kasi mno.
+ Nini dalili za UVIKO-19?
Dalili za kawaida za UVIKO-19 ni homa, uchovu, na kikohozi kikavu. Baadhi ya wagonjwa wanaweza kuwa na maumivu na uchungu, kubanwa pua, kutokwa kamasi, vidonda kooni au kuhara. Mara nyingi dalili hizi huwa si kali na huanza polepole. Watu wengine huambukizwa lakini hawaonyeshi dalili zozote na huwa hawajisikii vibaya. Watu wengi (takribani asilimia 80) hupona kutokana na ugonjwa huu bila kuhitaji matibabu maalum. Ni kama mtu mmoja kati ya watu sita wanaopata UVIKO-19 ndiye hudhoofika na kutatizika kupumua.
+ Ni nani aliye katika hatari kubwa zaidi ya kupata UVIKO-19?
Mtu yeyote anayekumbana na virusi vinavyosababisha UWIKO-19 yuko hatarini. Hata hivyo, watu wa umri mkubwa, na wale walio na hali nyingine za kiafya kama vile shinikizo la damu
, magonjwa ya moyo
na ugonjwa wa kisukari
au wale ambao kinga ya mwili imedhoofika
, kama vile watu walio na VVU/UKIMWI
, wako katika hatari zaidi na wana uwezekano mkubwa wa kupata dalili kali.
+ Ninahitaji kuhofia watoto wangu?
Visa vya watoto kuambukizwa vimeripotiwa. Hata hivyo, watoto na hata vijana hawaonekani kuathiriwa sana na Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona kama ilivyo kwa wazee.
+ UVIKO-19 husambaa vipi?
Ugonjwa huu unaweza kusambaa kutoka mtu mmoja kwenda mtu mwingine kupitia vitonetone wakati mtu aliyeambukizwa anapopiga chafya, anapokohoa au anapopumua. Wakati mwingine watu huambukizwa UVIKO-19 wanapogusa vitu au sehemu yenye virusi na kujigusa machoni, puani au mdomoni.
+ Ninaweza kujikinga vipi ili nisiambukizwe?
Njia bora ya kuzuia kuambukizwa ni kuepukana na kukumbana na virusi. Hili linawezekana kwa kuzingatia hali ya juu ya usafi, kuepuka kugusana na watu walioambukizwa na kujitenga na watu wengine kwa umbali wa futi 6, kwa sababu virusi hivyo husambaa mara nyingi kutoka mtu mmoja hadi kwa mwingine na baina ya watu waliokaribiana. Hili ni muhimu sana haswa kwa watu ambao wako katika hatari kubwa ya kuwa wagonjwa.
+ Ni hatua gani za usafi zilizo muafaka?
- Safisha mikono yako mara kwa mara kwa kuiosha kwa sabuni na maji kwa angalau sekunde 20, haswa baada ya kuwa mahali pa umma, au baada ya kusafisha pua, kukohoa, au kupiga chafya.
- Unaweza pia kutumia kitakasa mikono ambacho kina angalau asilimia 60 ya kileo. Sugua mikono yako mpaka ikauka.
- Usijiguse machoni, puani na mdomoni kwa mikono isiyooshwa.
+ Ninahitaji kuvaa barakoa ili nijikinge na virusi hivi?
Huhitaji kuvaa barakoa kama wewe si mgonjwa au unamhudumia mgonjwa (ambaye hawezi kuvaa barakoa). Barakoa ziachiwe wale wanaozihitaji.
+ Ninaweza kufanya nini kuwakinga wengine iwapo mimi ni mgonjwa au nimepatikana na Ugonjwa wa Virusi vya Korona?
kiwa unaugua, usitoke nyumbani, isipokuwa pale unapohitaji huduma ya matibabu, hata kama haijathibitishwa kwamba umeambukizwa Virusi vya Korona au una homa ya kawaida. Pia:
- Funika mdomo na pua kwa kitambaa wakati unapokohoa au kupiga chafya au fanya hivyo ndani ya kiwiko chako na ukioshe baadaye.
- Tupa kifaa kilichotumika kwenye takataka.
- Bila kuchelewa nawa mikono yako kwa sabuni na maji kwa angalau sekunde 20 au safisha mikono kwa kutumia kitakasa mikono chenye angalau silimia 60 ya kileo.
- Vaa barakoa unapokuwa karibu na watu wengine (k.m. mnapotumia chumba kimoja au gari na kabla ya kuingia kwenye kituo cha afya.
- Kwanza safisha halafu takasa kila siku sehemu zinazoguswa mara kwa mara, kama vile meza, vitasa vya milango, swichi za umeme, mipini, dawati, simu, kibodi, vyoo, bomba na sinki za maji.
+ Mtu aliyeachiliwa kutoka karantini ya UVIKO-19 anaweza kusambaza ugonjwa huo?
Mtu ambaye ameachiliwa kutoka karantini ya UVIKO-19 hana hatari ya kueneza virusi kwa sababu hakuonyesha dalili wakati wa kipindi alichokuwa amezuiliwa.
Maana ya karatinti ni kumtenga mtu (au kikundi cha watu) na watu wengine aliyekumbana na ugonjwa wa kuambukizwa lakini ambaye hajaonyesha dalili ili kuzuia kuenea kwa ugonjwa huo.
Karantini kwa kawaida hutegemea urefu wa kipindi cha ugonjwa wa kuambukizwa, ambao ni muda wa watu kuonyesha dalili za ugonjwa. Kwa UVIKO-19 kipindi hiki ni siku 14 kutoka tarehe ya mwisho kukumbana na ugonjwa huu, kwa kuwa siku 14 ndicho kipindi kirefu zaidi cha kupevuka kinachoonekana kwa virusi vingine vya aina hii ya korona.
+ Ni kwa namna gani ninaweza kuchangia kuzuia unyanyapaa wa watu wenye virusi vya UVIKO-19?
Hofu na wasiwasi vinaweza kusababisha unyanyapaa-kijamii, kwa mfano, kwa watu waliokuwa karantini ya UVIKO-19. Unyanyapaa unatokana na kutokuwa na habari kamili kuhusu UVIKO-19 na jinsi unavyoenea au kutokana na udaku na uzushi. Unaweza kuzuia unyanyapaa na kusaidia wengine kwa kutoa msaada wa kijamii.
Unaweza kupigana na unyanyapaa na kuwasaidia, na siyo kuwadhuru, wengine katika jamii. Unaweza kupinga unyanyapaa kwa kujifunza na kuwafunza wengine ukweli, kwa mfano kwamba virusi havilengi makundi fulani ya jamii.
Toa taarifa mpya kuhusu UVIKO-19 kwa wenzako lakini epukana na kueneza uongo.
+ Kuna tiba ya UVIKO-19?
Hakuna tiba maalum ya UVIKO-19. Usiwaamini watu wanaojaribu kukuuzia dawa na kuahidi kwamba watauponya ugonjwa huo. Magonjwa ya virusi yanaweza kuzuiwa na chanjo ikipatikana, lakini hayawezi kuponywa kwa kutumia viuavijasumu. Hata hivyo, matibabu au tiba inaweza kusaidia kupunguza dalili zinazoambatana na virusi, kama vile homa au kikohozi.
+ Kuna chanjo dhidi ya UVIKO-19?
Kufikia sasa, hakuna chanjo dhidi ya UVIKO-19. Wagonjwa watapata msaada na uangalizi kutoka kwa wahudumu wa afya hadi watakapopona.
+ Ni lazima niogope UVIKO-19?
Kila ugonjwa wa virusi ni hatari na UVIKO-19 unaambukizwa kwa wepesi sana. Ugonjwa huu unaweza kuenea kwa haraka mno na kuambukiza watu wengi katika kipindi kifupi. Hata hivyo, dalili za UVIKO-19 mara nyingi huwa si za kutisha. Wagonjwa wengi huwa hawaonani na daktari. Kiwango cha asilimia 4 ya vifo vya UVIKO-19 kinachotokea ni cha chini kikilinganishwa na magonjwa mengine ambayo yanatokea katika ukanda huu. Kwa Mfano: Kiwango cha vifo vya ugonjwa wa surua au virusi vya Ebola kinaweza kuwa zaidi ya asilimia 60 na hadi asilimia 100 ya watu wanaoambukizwa kichaa cha mbwa watakufa.
Mfano mwingine: Nchi ya Uchina, yenye watu zaidi ya bilioni 1.4, ni watu 80,000 tu ambao wamethibitishwa kuwa na UVIKO-19.
+ Ninaweza kufanya nini kuhakikisha maeneo ya kazi ni salama kwangu na kwa wenzangu?
Ikiwa UVIKO-19 utafika kazini kwako, unaweza kusimamisha au kuzuia kuenea kwake kwa kupunguza siku za kufanya kazi:
- Hakikisha umedumisha usafi kila sehemu kazini kwako (k.m. madawati na meza) na vitu (k.m simu, kibodi). Vifute na vitakasa mara kwa mara.
- Himiza wafanyikazi na wageni kuosha mikono kwa makini mara kwa mara.
- Hakikisha maeneo ya kazi yana nafasi za kutosha kuruhusu hewa safi kuzunguka (usafi mzuri wa kupumua).
+ Ni salama kutumia usafiri wa umma (Daladala au Matatu) kipindi hiki cha UVIKO-19?
Abiria katika Matatu au Daladala huwa wamesongamana na hakuna njia ya kutenga nafasi baina ya abiria mmoja na yule anayekohoa na kupiga chafya na kuzuia kusambaa kwa vitonetotone kutoka pua yake na mdomo wake. Kwa hivyo, utumiaji wa usafiri wa umma una hatari kubwa ya maambukizi ya UVIKO-19 na magonjwa mengine ya kuambukiza. Ikiwezekana, usafiri mbadala utumiwe kana njia ya kuzuia maambukizi wakati huu wa UVIKO-19.
+ Ninaweza kuhudhuria ibada?
Huu ni uamuzi wa kibinafsi. Kwa hakika, ibada inaweza kusaidia kuenea maambukizi kwa kuwa watu wengi hukusanyika na kukaa na kusimama karibu-karibu.Ukifikiri kuwa kuhudhuria ibada ni bora kuliko kujikinga dhidi ya UVIKO-19, basi huo utakuwa uamuzi wako binafsi. Ukiamua kuhudhuria ibada, jitenge na washiriki wenzako kadri iwezekanavyo na epuka kusalimiana. Unaweza pia kumhusisha kiongozi wako wa dini katika kulishughulikia janga hili. Ikiwa tayari una UVIKO-19, KAMWE usiende kwenye ibada, kwa kuwa utahatarisha usalama wa wenzako.
+ Waafrika wana kinga dhidi ya UVIKO-19?
Habari zisizo za kweli vimeanza kuibuka kuhusu UVIKO-19. Mojapo ni kwamba Waafrika wana kinga dhidi ya UVIKO-19. Usiamini habari kama hizo. Ugonjwa huu haumbagui mtu yeyote. Tayari zaidi ya nchi 35 za Afrika zimeripoti matukio ya visa vya UVIKO-19, uthibitisho kwamba hakuna usalama bila tahadhari na kujikinga.
+ Je, kula nyama ya mwituni kuna hatari ya maambukizi ya UVIKO-19?
Nyama ya mwituni inadhaniwa kuwa chanzo cha janga la sasa la virusi vya korona. Virusi vya korona na bakteria nyingine hujitokeza kwa kawaida katika wanyama. Kwa hivyo, mchakato wa kuandaa nyama ya kula unahitaji kufuata kanuni za maandalizi safi na salama ya chakula. Nyama inapaswa kukaguliwa na wataalam wanaohusika na watumiaji wanashauriwa kuiandaa vizuri, kwa kupika au kuikaanga ili iive na isiwe mbichi.
+ Wagonjwa waliopona kutokana na UVIKO-19 wana kinga dhidi ya virusi hivyo?
Ni mapema mno kutoa jubu la uhakika. Hata hivyo, kuna ushahidi wa kisayansi unaonyesha kuwa mtu aliyeambukizwa UVIKO-19 na kupona hujenga aina fulani ya kinga dhidi ya mbegu ya kirusi iliyosababisha maambukizi. Wanasayansi nchini Uchina kwa makusudi waliambukiza nyani aina ya ngedere UVIKO-19 na pia wakawaambukiz ngedere walionusurika kiwango kikubwa cha virusi. Hakuna ngedere aliyeambukizwa mara ya pili aliyekuwa mgonjwa. Mkabiliano wa kujikinga na maradhi wa ngedere unafanana kwa kiasi fulani na ule wa binadamu. Hivyo, wataalamu kwa makini wanafasiri matokeo ya jaribio hilo kumaanisha kuwa binadamu aliyepona UVIKO-19 akiambukizwa tena hawezi kuathirika sana..
+ Bidhaa kutoka Uchina ni salama?
Majaribio ya kisayansi yalionyesha kuwa virusi vinavyosababisha UVIKO-19 vinaweza kuishi kwa nguo au sehemu ya juu ya kitu kwa saa kadhaa, kutegema hali nyingine kama vile kiwango cha joto, unyevunyevu na kadhalika. Iwapo bidhaa kutoka Uchina vitakuwa vimechafuliwa na virusi huwa vinasafiri masafa marefu kabla kufika Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki. Hivyo, itakuwa vigumu kwa virusi hivyo kuwa bado hai. Hata hivyo, ikiwa maana ya ‘bidhaa’ ni pamoja na wanyama hai walio na virusi, bila shaka maambukizi yanaweza kutokea. Hivyo, Uchina imeweka marufuku ya biashara ya kigeni ya wanyama wa mwituni.
+ Ninaweza kupata UVIKO-19 kwa nguo kuukuu kutoka ng’ambo?
Virusi vinavyosababisha UVIKO-19 vinaweza kuishi kwa nguo au sehemu ya juu ya kitu kwa saa kadhaa, kutegema hali nyingine kama vile kiwango cha joto au unyevunyevu. Hata hivyo, iwapo nguo kuukuu zilitoka ng’ambo, zilisafiri masafa marefu na zitakuwa zilisafishwa na kuwekwa dawa ya kuua viini vya maradhi kabla ya kuuzwa kama inavyopendekezwa na viwango vya biashara ya kimataifa. Kwa hali hii, ni vigumu kwa virusi kupatikana katika nguo kuukuu.
Ikiwa bado una shaka na unataka uhakika na kuwa salama kabisa, osha nguo hizo kwa kutumia sabuni ya unga kwenye maji moto ya digrii 60 au zaidi. Hii itaviua virusi.