The different EAC Partner States are at different levels of infrastructure development.
Overall, in the last 10 years all Partner States have invested heavily in infrastructure development. Thus, the quality of soft, hard and critical infrastructure has greatly improved across the EAC
The region, therefore, has in place relatively well established infrastructure to support and sustain investments and businesses.
Infrastructure in the EAC can be grouped into three different types:
- Soft infrastructure: Soft infrastructure refers to all the institutions which are required to maintain the economic, health, cultural and social standards, such as the financial system, the education system, the health care system, the system of government, and law enforcement, as well as emergency services. These types of infrastructure make up institutions that help maintain the economy. These usually require human capital and help deliver certain services to the population. In EAC, the soft infrastructure is of an acceptable standard.
- Hard Infrastructure: Hard infrastructure refers to the large physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industrial State. These make up the physical systems that make it necessary to run a modern, industrialized State. In EAC substantial progress has been made in the development of the hard infrastructure including railways, roads, highways, bridges, Harbours, as well as the capital/assets needed to make them operational (e.g. transit buses and vehicles). Also an oil refinery is proposed for construction in Uganda that would serve the needs of the region.
- Critical Infrastructure: These are assets defined by a government as being essential to the functioning of a society and economy. In EAC there is substantial development of critical infrastructure including facilities for shelter, telecommunication, public health, agriculture, etc.