Transboundary Crop and Animal Pests and Diseases
EAC region is a hot spot for many transboundary animal crop pests and diseases.
Crop Pests and Diseases
The Fall Army Worm (FAW) was reported in 2016 and is one of the ferocious transboundary crop pest in the EAC and Africa continent as a whole.
The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) has also been a threat in the EAC since 2011.
Both diseases have reduced the productivity and availability of key staple and commercial crops such as Maize which many people depend on directly or indirectly in terms of food, employment and income.
More recently, in 2019/2020, some EAC Partner States have been battling the worst desert locust outbreak in 70 years. The diseases and pests have reduced the productivity and availability of key staple and commercial crops such as maize which many people depend on directly or indirectly in terms of food, employment and income.
- In May 2018, the EAC Secretariat in collaboration with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) organized a regional workshop on MLN. The main focus of the workshop was to appraise EAC Partner States and other regional stakeholders on the current state of MLN in the region and management practices in place; share knowledge and information on current activities including capacity building, awareness creation, technologies developed or under development and deployed to manage MLN; and identify areas that require enhanced coordination and complementarity among EAC Partner States in the management of MLN.
- In September, 2018, the EAC Secretariat convened a regional stakeholders’ workshop on combating the FAW. The objectives of the workshop among others included taking stock of the status of FAW management efforts and practices in the region and define the niche, critical role and response by EAC and mechanisms for strengthening regional coordination and complementarity among EAC Partner States.
The EAC Secretariat and Partner States have initiated a process of harmonizing Emergency Registration Protocols to facilitate access to safe and effective pesticides as part of the strategy to deal with emerging and re-emerging transboundary crop pests and diseases.
Animal Pests and Diseases
One of the major hindrances to increased animal production in the EAC is the occurrence of animal disease especially transboundary animal diseases (TADs).
Some of the common endemic animal diseases include:
- Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD),
- Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP),
- Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD),
- Tick borne diseases,
- Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP),
- Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR),
- Sheep and Goat Pox,
- African Swine Fever,
- Newcastle Disease,
- Trypanosomosis (animal and human),
- Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza,
- Rift Valley Fever,
- Brucellosis, and
- Bovine Tuberculosis among others.
Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) and zoonoses are responsible for tremendous economic losses to both farmers and governments. There are direct costs related to prevention and control of disease outbreaks as well as indirect costs related to loss of productivity and the impact on trade and tourism.
They have been recent outbreak of important animal and zoonotic diseases such as Rift Valley Fever, Marburg, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, FMD, PPR and anthrax in the community. Complementary actions at regional, continental and International level are needed to address the challenge in a coordinated manner. EAC Secretariat has collaborated with strategic regional and international partners that have adequate technical capacities and infrastructure for effective management of such diseases.
Implementation of the first EAC Regional Strategy on Prevention and Control of Transboundary Animal and Zoonotic Diseases was concluded in 2018. A new strategy covering the period 2019 to 2023 has been developed and is awaiting adoption by EAC policy organs.