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Visit by Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr Frank-Walter Steinmeier, to EAC Headquarters

The Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr Frank-Walter Steinmeier, will on Sunday, 22nd November 2015 pay a working visit to the East African Community (EAC) Headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania from 1.00PM.

The Minister, who will be accompanied by members of the German business community, will hold bilateral talks with the Secretary-General of the EAC, Amb. Dr Richard Sezibera.

The two leaders will then brief the press at the EAC Media Centre.

Shortly after the briefing, both the Minister and the Secretary-General will proceed to jointly address the East African-German Business Roundtable, jointly hosted by the EAC Secretariat, the East African Business Council and the Federal Foreign Office.

Please find attached a programme for the visit.

Civil Society petition EALA on Republic of Burundi

Civil Society Organisations in the EAC have petitioned the regional Assembly to urgently undertake specified number of actions within its mandate to contain the situation in the Republic of Burundi.

Representatives of the Pan-African Lawyers Union (PALU) and the East African Civil Society Organisations’ Forum (EACSOF) on Monday afternoon presented a petition to EALA Speaker, Rt Hon. Daniel F. Kidega at a brief ceremony at the Speaker’s Chambers in Arusha.

The Civil Society representatives are petitioning EALA among other things to make strong recommendation to the Summit of EAC Heads of State that the Republic of Burundi should not assume the rotating Chairmanship of the EAC until it resolves the political, human rights and humanitarian crisis in the country.

The petitioners further urge the House to call upon the Chair of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union to take concrete steps towards preventing Burundi from descending into genocide or mass atrocities. Such measures the petition says, include, enhancing the numbers and capacity of the Human Rights monitors and Military monitors deployed to the country. They further call for the sanctions regime of the African Union to be activated.

The petition avers that EALA or a relevant Committee within, should immediately call for a public hearing in Arusha, Tanzania, that would welcome Burundian and East African citizens to testify to the occurrences in the country and to suggest proposals for resolution to the crisis.

In addition to PALU (Principal Petitioner) and EACSOF, the Atrocities Watch Africa, Centre for Citizens’ Participation on the African Union, East Africa Law Society and the Kituo Cha Katiba append their signatures to the petition.

The petition states that there have been numerous reports of cases of assassinations, extra-judicial and arbitrary killings of over 130 persons and wants EALA to condemn what it terms arbitrary killings as well as the inordinate use of force by the police, security officials and members of a youth wing group, Imbonerakure.

The petitioners say that although the authorities in Burundi have ordered investigations into the killings, no single case has been concluded, citing the murder of the former head of intelligence Services, General Adolphe Nshimirimana.

“More recently, the arbitrary killing of the son of the eminent and award winning Human Rights Defender, Pierre Claver Mbonimpa, who is himself under recovery after been shot, for which no investigations have been done, despite statements by the Government condemning the killings”, a section of the Petition reads.

The petitioners, in addition, call on EALA to request the African Union to intervene in the political and humanitarian crisis citing its comprehensive and far-reaching legal and institutional framework that includes the Constitutive Act of the African Union, 2000 and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights amongst others.

The petition acknowledges the measures taken by various Organs and Institutions of the EAC since the crisis started in February this year. They include three Extra-Ordinary Summits by the EAC Heads of State held on Burundi which took place on 13 May 2015, 31 May 2015 and 6 June 2015 – the latter of which appointed the President of the Republic of Uganda, H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni to mediate in the crisis.

EAC citizens, including some of the petitioners, filed a case before the East African Court of Justice in Reference No. 2 of 2015: East African Civil Society Organisations’ Forum (EACSOF) vs. The Attorney General of Burundi and 2 Others. According to the petitioners, the case requests the Court to ascertain whether the President of Burundi could lawfully run for a third term, in light of the relevant provisions of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi (Arusha Accord) of 2000 and the Burundi Constitution of 2005.

The Reference No. 2 of 2015 was filed with an application for interim injunction whose citation is Application No. 5 of 2015 (Arising from Reference No. 2 of 2015) The East African Civil Society Organisations’ Forum (EACSOF) Vs The Attorney General of the Republic of Burundi and 2 Others. The application sought to injunct the elections of Burundi pending hearing and determination of the Reference. The Application was heard on 20th July 2015 and a Ruling was delivered on the same day denying the grant of an injunction.

“The East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) on its part, participated in the joint East African Community (EAC) Observation Mission to the Burundi Elections, though it is yet to deploy its mandate and powers, under the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community, to the deepening political, human rights and humanitarian crisis in Burundi”, a section of the petition states.

The petitioners reiterate speedy responses to the situation in Burundi.

“Should the above measures not bear fruit within the next one month, EALA should call for suspension of the Burundi Government from both the EAC and the AU”, the petition affirms in conclusion.

Under Rule 86 of the EALA Rules of Procedure, any citizen of the Partner States, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Partner State shall have the right to address, individually or in association with other citizens or persons, a petition to the Assembly on a matter which comes within the Community’s fields of activities and which affects him, her or it directly.

EALA sitting to be held in Kigali next week

The East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) shall hold its sitting in Kigali, Rwanda, next week. The Plenary, which takes place from Monday, 22nd November 2015 to Friday, 4th December 2015, is the Third Meeting of the Fourth Session of the Third Assembly.

The Assembly is to be presided over by the Speaker, Rt Hon. Daniel F. Kidega. Top on the agenda during the two week period is the Special sitting expected to be addressed by the President of the Republic of Rwanda, H.E. Paul Kagame.

Two key Bills on the cards at the EALA meeting are the EAC Disaster Risk Reduction Bill 2013 and the EAC Forestry Management Bill 2014.

The EAC Forestry Management Bill 2014 seeks to promote the development, protection, conservation, sustainable management and use of the forests in the Community especially trans-boundary forests ecosystems, in the interest of present and future generations.

It further wants to espouse the scientific, cultural and socio-economic values of forests and harmonise national forest laws.

The Assembly adjourned debate on the Forest Management and Protection Bill, 2014 at its last Sitting in Nairobi in October 2015. The adjournment at Committee stage followed the successful Motion for the same, tabled by the Chair of EAC Council of Ministers, Hon. Dr Harrison Mwakyembe, seeking for more time to enable the United Republic of Tanzania to make input.

Hon. Dr Mwakyembe then informed the House that the United Republic of Tanzania was expected to go to the polls in October and that it was necessary for the debate to be put on hold until such time that a new Government is in place to effectively enable the Partner State to make its input.

The EAC Disaster Risk Reduction Bill 2013, on its part, seeks to provide a legal framework for intervention and assistance for people affected by Climate Change and natural-related hazards and to protect the natural environment through integration of comprehensive Disaster Risk Reduction and management practices in the EAC.

Debate on the Bill, moved for second reading in August 2013, was halted following a request by the Council of Ministers to consult and consider its policy implications. The EAC Ministers’ further called for the taking over of the Bill for appropriate amendment and re-introduction as a Council of Ministers’ Bill. At the same time, the move was to allow for pursuit of the ratification of the EAC Protocol on Peace and Security which among other objectives, provides for co-operation in DRR management and crisis response.

During the Plenary Sittings, the House is also expected to receive and to debate on a number of reports. They include that of the Committee on Accounts for the Audited Financial Statements of EAC for the Financial Year ended 30th June 2014 and the Committee on Agriculture, Tourism and Natural Resources report on the sensitisation workshop on standards by the African Organisation of Standardisation.

The Report of the Committee on Communication, Trade and Investment on the on-spot assessment of One-Stop Border Posts in the EAC is also expected to be tabled and debated.

In addition, the Committee on Legal, Rules and Privileges shall table its Report on the implementation of Resolutions and Questions of the Assembly and Council commitments.

EALA sittings are held under the principle of rotation in line with Article 55 of the EAC Treaty. Its last sitting took place in Nairobi, Kenya in October 2015. EALA meets at least once in every year at its headquarter in Arusha, Tanzania.

EAC Secretary-General hosts Dinner for outgoing EU Ambassador

The East African Community (EAC) Secretary-General, Amb. Dr Richard Sezibera over the weekend hosted the outgoing Ambassador of the Head of Delegation to Tanzania and East African Community at European Union, H.E. Filiberto Ceriani Sebregondi to a farewell dinner at the Arusha Coffee Lodge.

Speaking at the dinner, the Secretary-General extolled the outgoing Ambassador for not only enhancing greater development for the people of East Africa, but also for his immense contribution to the EAC integration agenda.

“Although this is a sobering moment, I am glad that you, Amb. Sebregondi, have been a part of our success,” said Amb. Sezibera. “I would also like to thank the EU for believing in us and for supporting our objective of widening and deepening cooperation among the Partner States in, among others, political, social, economic and social fields for the mutual benefits of our citizenry”, he said.

Under the leadership of Amb. Sebregondi, the EU supported EAC’s Regional Integrated Support Programmes (RISP 3) – (Euro 2.7 Mil); Maritime Security Programme (MASE) – (Euro 2.3 Mil); Regional Electoral Support Programme to support strengthening of the EAC electoral observation methodology (EAC RESP) – (Euro 5 Mil); the Inter-Regional Coordinating Committee (IRCC) – (Euro 1.5 Mil), in addition to supporting several East Africa infrastructure projects including the Road Network / Road Transport Corridors, Energy Sector and One-Stop Border Posts.

Court allows Hon. Zziwa to give evidence in her case against the Secretary-General

The First Instance Division overruled the objections of the Secretary-General blocking Hon. Zziwa from giving evidence in Court without seeking leave of the Assembly. This is her case versus the Secretary-General alleging that the process of her removal from the Office of EALA Speaker was illegal and an infringement of Articles 53 and 56 of the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community. The Court went further and re-scheduled the matter for hearing on 18th and 19th November 2015.

In its ruling, the Court said that it found that it has not been satisfactorily established before the Court that the evidence the Applicant intends to adduce before the Court does not fall in the ambit (realm) of Section 20 of the EALA Powers and Privileges Act 2003. That it would be premature at this stage to forestall her (Applicant) evidence on the pretext (alleged reason) that it does not comply with the provision of the said Section and again, the Court held that it would also be premature to adjudge the Applicant’s evidence and prevent her from testifying in her matter.

The Court reiterated its earlier position that the Act is a valid Community Law and must be complied with by all the witnesses that seek to adduce evidence in Court, however that the only exception in this regard for present purposes would be the Clerk to the Assembly who was summoned as a witness in this matter pursuant to the Court order that must be obeyed.

Further, that it is non-negotiable tenet (principle) of the Rule of Law that all Court’s orders must be respected and obeyed. In that result, the Court was satisfied that the documentation produced by the Clerk to the Assembly is properly on record pursuant to Court order and the Clerk is under legal obligation to appear as a witness in this matter pursuant to the said order without need for special leave of the Assembly. The Court also added that in any event should he in his own volition / option deem it necessary to seek leave of the Assembly, the onus / duty will be upon him having been duly served with the witness summons to secure the said leave.

This matter previously was scheduled for hearing of oral evidence on 8th and 9th September 2015, however the Respondent (Secretary-General) represented by Mr Stephen Agaba raised the preliminary objection on a preliminary point of law premised on Sec 20 of the EALA Powers and Privileges Act 2003. The main issue was that the witnesses were all Members and Officers of EALA but had not secured the leave from the Assembly to adduce evidence in the Court.

The subject of the main case is that the Applicant (Zziwa) alleges that in contravention of Articles 53 and 56 of the Treaty, Rule 9 and Annex 3 of the Rules of Procedure of EALA and Rule of law, on 26th November 2014, some members of EALA convened in the Assembly chambers, summoned the Clerk of the Assembly to “preside over the Assembly”, re-instated a motion / process of removal of the Speaker, referred the motion to the Committee on Legal, Rules and Privileges for investigations, “suspended” the Speaker / Applicant from exercising the functions of the Office of Speaker and appointed one of them to preside over the proceedings. That the Committee’s action of conducting investigations on a non-existing motion was an illegality. That the Committee as constituted for the purposes of investigations was improper and breached the rules of natural justice, specifically the rule against bias.

The Court had directed the Clerk of the East African Legislative Assembly to appear in Court as one of the witnesses who was required to give evidence but he did not appear in Court.

In February 2015, the Court allowed Hon. Margaret Nantongo Zziwa to withdraw her Application seeking to stop her impeachment from the Office of the Speaker because the prayers sought had been overtaken by events and the Assembly had elected a new Speaker.

The ruling of the Court was delivered by a bench of three Hon. Judges of the First Instance Division composed of Honourable Lady Justice Monica Mugenyi (Principal Judge), Justice Fakihi A. Jundu and Justice Audace Ngiye in open Court.

EAC Secretary-General praises Mount Meru University’s contribution towards Regional Integration

The East African Community (EAC) Secretary-General, Amb. Dr Richard Sezibera graced the 11th graduation ceremony at Mount Meru University as chief guest over the weekend.

While addressing the gathering, the Secretary-General appreciated the efforts by the institution towards achieving academic excellence, adding that it a shining example of integration at work. “I cannot overemphasise the fundamental role that education plays in uniting people”, said Amb. Sezibera.

“Today, you are all graduates of one university, and you share the common concepts of your institution - knowledge, wisdom, excellence, God fearing, skilled, proactive, visionary, hardworking and transforming servant leaders. It is these same concepts that have created a clear bond between universities and regional integration”, he said.

The EAC, through the Inter-University Council for East Africa, is playing a key role in the harmonisation of the education systems in the region. This will not only ensure that the established systems conform to the international practices, procedures and guidelines, but will also lead to international credibility and competitiveness.

A total of 783 students from Mount Meru University’s main campus in Arusha received their diploma, bachelor’s and master’s degree certificates in Theology, Education and Business.

World Travel Market concludes in London

The East African Community Partner States of the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and The United Republic of Tanzania have gone another step ahead in regional integration by organising joint event at the World Travel Market in London.

This year the event focused on quality, improved services and standards, tourism opportunities, safety and security and lowered investment thresholds in the region in promoting it as a single tourist destination.

Speaking at the EAC joint event, Hon. Dr Maria Mutagamba, Minister for Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities, Uganda, stated that the EAC Partner States have fully embarked on the operationalisation of a Common Market Protocol. With a combined population above 135 million as well as a collective estimated GDP of 85.00 billion U.S. dollars, the Common Market will have a positive economic impact for the entire EAC Region.

Since it was adopted in 2009, the Common Market Protocol has enabled the gradual free movement of people, capital, goods and services especially in the hospitality and travel industry sector where the removal of Non-Tariff Barriers has shown to be one of the stimulus factors.

Dr Mutagamba said tourism plays a key role in fostering regional economic growth and improving regional tourist products, such as the standardisation of accommodation and other hospitality services, whereby showing quality is more important than quantity and will go a long way in reassuring our UK market of their continued support and increased visits to the region.

She further stated that sustainable and optimal utilisation of the resources as a region requires striking the balance between developing creative “products” that will continuously attract visitors to the region and sustaining the natural resources the region have been blessed with.

Hon. Minister reiterated that promoting the EAC as a Single Tourism Destination is the only way to optimise the region’s potential. The single tourist visa is now operational in three countries i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda and sales of multiple, cross-border destination packages have increased significantly in recent years due to strengthened cross-border tour operators co-operation, added Dr Maria.

The East African Community region has numerous unique and awesome attractions. The coastal zones of Mombasa and Zanzibar’s wonderful beaches and smiling faces of the coastal people will mesmerise you. The Heart of Africa in the land of a thousand hills you will meet our closest ape relative (Mountain gorilla) residing at the national park bordering Rwanda and the Pearl of Africa, Uganda, you will see more of them at Bwindi National Park. East Africa has even more to offer such as the world second largest migration at Serengeti - Maasai Mara; the source of the famous Nile river without forgetting Mt. Kilimanjaro the roof of Africa, stated the Minister.

She informed the participants who attended the event that safety and security is key to fostering tourism development in the region. Due to the increasing security threats from neighbours, joint efforts have helped minimise the consequences and ensured a durable solution. In this regard, the Ministers responsible for tourism have been fully addressing the negative image portrayed and subsequent, negative travel advisories issued.

Hon. Minister also called for the EAC’s increased foreign investment in the tourism sector. Though investment in this sector has recently registered significant increase, more is welcomed as East African countries are making strides in providing more enabling environment for foreign investors.

She disclosed several incentives granted in the region including a tax-free environment for a fixed period, quick registration services for the new companies and professional on-site guidance and friendly financing mechanisms.

Dr Mutagamba urged all the tourists to always plan their visits to the region using credible information. One such tool is the regional travel magazine “Travellers Around and About East Africa” which will continue to provide important and useful information in different forms about the region to visitors moving around the East Africa Community. The magazine will also provide pertinent and strategic information on the various lucrative investment opportunities in the region ranging from improving tourism facilities, standardising accommodation establishments and many more.

The event was graced by UK Buyers, Partner States Tour Operators, High Commissioners from the EAC Countries in the UK, Directors of Tourism and Wildlife Management. Vibrant songs and dances from various regions of the Community entertained guests.

Court dismisses a Case against Uganda and the EAC Secretary-General on the alleged failure to investigate business related to Trafficking of Military Goods

The First Instance Division dismissed a case filed by a Ugandan national, Oscar Okaly Opuli, against the Secretary-General of the East African Community (1st Respondent) and the Republic of Uganda (2nd Respondent) alleging that the Government of Uganda’s failure to investigate David Greenhugh and business related to Trafficking of Military Goods from Ukraine to Sudan through Uganda, a conduct which is contrary to the United Kingdom’s Export Control Order Act 2008 and the East African Community Laws is an infringement of the Treaty. The Applicant also alleges that the Secretary-General’s inaction constitutes an infringement of the Treaty for the Establishment of the EAC.

In February 2015, the Court directed the Applicant to file evidence of a witness by way of affidavit and his submissions with the Court by 8th May 2015. To date, none of the orders have been complied with and the Court has gone ahead and dismissed the matter.

The Court in its ruling stated that, they agree with the Counsel for the Respondents that no sufficient reasons had been advanced by the Counsel for the Applicant for his failure to take steps ordered by the Court on 23rd Feb 2015 after the Scheduling Conference.

The Principal Judge Hon. Lady Justice Monica Mugenyi further said that in absence of sufficient reasons such failure amounts to abuse of Court process. The Court therefore exercised its discretion under Rule 1(2) and 66(3) of the Court’s Rules of procedure and dismissed the case.

Before the Court ruled, the Lawyer for the Applicant submitted that the Applicant lost contact with the witness leading to the delay in filing of the Submission as the Court had ordered in February 2015 and was requesting the Court for more time of 30 days to file the same.

Mr Stephen Agaba representing the Secretary-General also submitted opposing the prayer for the Applicant and said that Applicant has consistently shown lack of interest in the matter since the time the Court directed him to file his submission up to today.

That this was evidenced by his failure to communicate to Court what the challenge was. He further said that if he had failed to submit the requirements in eight months then he might not do the same in the one month being requested for. Mr Agaba asked Court to strike out the case because the Applicants have failed to fulfil their obligations and that is the abuse of the Court’s process.

The 2nd Respondent (Attorney General of Uganda) represented by Ms Margaret Nabakooza also associated herself with the submissions of Counsel for the Secretary-General and asked Court to dismiss the case.

The matters came before a bench of the Judges of the First Instance Division composed of Honourable Lady Justice Monica Mugenyi (Principal Judge), Justice Dr Faustin Ntezilyayo, and Justice Fakihi A. Jundu.

Court hears Case against EAC Secretary-General on expulsion of Rwandan Citizens from Kagera region in Tanzania

The First Instance Division on 3 November 2015 heard a matter against the Secretary-General of the East African Community for the alleged failure to take action in implementation of the EAC Council of Ministers’ directive to the two Partner States - United Republic of Tanzania and the Republic of Rwanda - to resolve the issue of the Rwandan citizens who were expelled from Tanzania in Kagera region in 2013.

The Applicant (East African Law Society) represented by Prof. Fredrick Sempebwa submitted that the Secretary-General’s failure to comply with the Council’s decision was a breach of the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community. He further added that since the directive of the Council, the Secretary-General has done nothing to implement the decision which is a fundamental issue of the Treaty particularly Article 71 which provides the functions of the Secretariat.

Prof. Sempebwa again contended that the citizens who were expelled from Tanzania are citizens of a Partner State of the East African Community and therefore, infringes the Treaty because they are entitled to the right of residence and the right of establishment as well as other rights within the Treaty and the Common Market Protocol of the Community. He again said that it was the duty of the Secretary-General to carry out investigations and find out the truth of breach of the Treaty. He also sought remedies if the Court rules in favour of the Applicant.

Dr Anthony Kafumbe, Counsel to the Community, representing the Respondent submitted that, the matter is time barred because it occurred in August 2013, up to the time the case was filed to Court on 8th September 2015 which was beyond the two months time limit to file the case and it should have been filed within the provisions of Article 30(2) of the Treaty. He further stated that if the Secretary-General had failed to take action as alleged still the matter could have been filed to court within the time limit.

He also urged that the decision being contested about is a decision directed to the Partner States, that is the United Republic of Tanzania and the Republic of Rwanda but not directed to the Secretary-General. He again added that in Article 16 of the Treaty, Partner States have an obligation to implement directives of the Council, that so it does not require the Secretary-General once the directive is issued.

Dr Kafumbe said that the Secretary-General had convened meetings in September 2013 and January 2015 for the two Partner States but he is not updated on the progress between the two Partner States. He also emphasised that the matter is still before the Council of Ministers expecting to be deliberated on in the Council of Ministers meeting expected to sit late November 2015.

He therefore said that the Secretary-General as a correspondence has played his role as he was supposed to and he is not the right party to be brought before the Court while there is provision of Article 16, which gives mandate to the Partner States to implement the directives of the Council.

The matter came before a bench of the Judges of the First Instance Division composed of Honourable Lady Justice Monica Mugenyi (Principal Judge), Justice Isaac Lenaola (Deputy Principal Judge), Justice Dr Faustin Ntezilyayo, Justice Fakihi A. Jundu and Justice Audace Ngiye in open Court.

The Court will deliver its judgment on notice.

One Health approach Simulation Workshop at Namanga border prepares Citizens to tackle Ebola and other Communicable Disease outbreaks

In order to enhance the level of preparedness of both the Republic of Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania in response to the possible emerging and re-emerging epidemic and pandemic threats of the Ebola Virus Disease and other communicable diseases, the East African Community Secretariat convened a regional (One Health approach) Table Top and Field Simulation Exercise at the Namanga border which concluded on Friday, 23rd October 2015.

The three-day workshop, which ran from 21st-23rd October 2015, brought together representatives from the EAC Partner States, National Ministries responsible for human health and animal health, the Ministry of EAC Affairs and representatives from border security agencies, immigration and customs officers. Representatives from the East Central and Southern Africa Health Community, Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (EACTAD-UNFAO), U.S. Agency for International Development and the EAC Secretariat were also present.

“There is high possibility for infectious diseases to spread out to many countries across the world if they are not properly controlled”, said Mr. Timothy Wesonga, EAC Senior Livestock and Fisheries Officer. “If an outbreak does happen in any of the East African Partner States, then it can also affect the rest of region and indeed the world. We have seen this in the case of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa which had reached as far as America, Spain, and to other parts of the world”, he said.

The participants also visited the Longido District headquarters, Longido District Hospital and Kajiado County Hospital. The main objective of the field visits was to conduct a situational analysis and to sensitise local authorities in both Longido District in Tanzania and Kajiado County in Kenya on the planned simulation exercises.

The 9th Ordinary Meeting of the EAC Sectoral Council of Ministers of Health which was held in Zanzibar, Tanzania from 14th to 17th April 2014 approved the institutionalisation of the One Health approach in order to prevent and control zoonotic diseases and other events of Public Health concern. All Partner States of the EAC are a hotspot where those drivers are found. Rift Valley Fever, Yellow Fever, Anthrax, Ebola and Marbug outbreaks are a few examples of re-emerging infectious diseases, which have struck a few Partner States of the EAC in the last decade causing public health threats and seriously damaging the economy.

Two field simulation exercises have already been conducted at the Kenya-Uganda border at Busia and the Tanzania-Burundi-Rwanda at Kagera river basin ecosystem (Muyinga) in April 2010 and August 2012 respectively.

East African Community
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Tel: +255 (0)27 216 2100
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Email: eac@eachq.org