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Volume 3 | Supplement 1 of November, 2021


East African Community Sustainable Development Goal on Health: Reflection and Path Ahead to 2030
17-19 November 2021


ST2  Paradigm Shift for Effective Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases

ST3  Promoting mental health care services in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Rwanda’s experience

ST4  Can African governments afford to pay for univer- sal health coverage?

ST5  Preparing for the Next pandemic: Lessons from COVID-19 Testing

1  Adverse neonatal outcomes at the maternity ward in a County Referral Hospital, Kenya

2  An Investigation on HIV Transmission to Infants in Relation to the Mode of Infant Feeding and Maternal Immunity in Central Kenya

3  Assessment of Health System Factors influencing Satisfaction with Postnatal Care Services Among Women Who Delivered in Embu Hospital, Embu County, Kenya

4  Biomarkers of late post-discharge mortality among children treated for complicated severe malnutrition

5  Biomarkers of severe acute infections in hospitalized children

6  Changes in fertility preferences and its impact on Contraceptive use: An analysis of a national represen- tative longitudinal survey in Kenya

7  Crop Intensification Program, Feeding Practices and Nutrition Status of Children under Five Years in Musanze District, Rwanda

8  Cultural competence of health care workers on Maternal Health Care Service Utilization among Mothers of Mount Elgon Constituency Bungoma, Kenya

9  Description of Women Attending First Antenatal Care Visits at Saboti Sub County Hospital from March to December 2020

10  Desired Birth Spacing in Pregnant Women. Cases of three health facilities: one rural and two urbans in Burundi.

11  Epidemiological, Clinical and Echographic Profile of Deep Venous Thromboses in Pregnant Women at Teaching Hospital Center of Kamenge Chu in Bujumbura

12  Factors Associated with Health Seeking Behavior for Reproductive Tract Infections among Young Street Females in Eldoret, Kenya

13  Factors Associated with Maternal Deaths in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

14  Fertility Preferences, contraceptives use and preg- nancy experience among married women: Evidence from a national representative panel study in Kenya

15   Fertility trends by HIV status from 1994-2018: Evidence from health and demographic surveillance system in Tanzanian rural District

16   Health-Related Quality of Life of Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease after Nissen Fundoplication and Gastrostomy Tube Insertion

17   Immediate Seven Day Outcomes and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight Neonates at Referral Hospitals in Mwanza City, Tanzania

18   Improving child health through Vitamin A supple- mentation and deworming in Kenya: Post-Event Coverage Survey for Vitamin A supplementation of children aged (6-59) months and coupled services conducted in Bungoma and Trans Nzoia Counties

19   Incidence and Factors Associated with Unwanted Pregnancy among Adolescent girls and Young Women (AGYW) in Kampala, Uganda.

20   Incidence of Preterm Birth Admissions in Uganda, 2015-2019

21   Inequities in unmet need for contraception among married women: Evidence from the PMA2020/ Kenya survey

22   Knowledge, Attitude and Factors affecting the utili- zation of postnatal care services among rural women in Kiganda District, Burundi

23  Lifestyle habits associated with adolescent over- weight and obesity in Ilala district Dar es Salaam

24  Monitoring Progress in Reproductive, Maternal and Child Health (RMCH) Following Devolution (2012- 2018) Of Health Services in Kenya: A Trend Analysis

25  Opposed to non-acceptance of vasectomy in Burundi. Case of three health structures: one rural and two urban

26  Pediatric Nursing care and its practice in health care facilities in Burundi

27  Perceived quality of childbirth care among postnatal mothers in Tanzania

28  Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in pregnant women in a hospital setting in Bujumbura

29  Prevalence, distribution and factors associated with anaemia among secondary school adolescents in Kibaha Town Council, Tanzania

30  Recurrence of Post-Term Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Women Who Delivered At Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) In Northern Tanzania from 2000 to 2018; A Retrospective Cohort Study

31  Risk factors for maternal mortality among women who had caesarean section delivery in Kenya: a case-control study.

32  Sexuality and the risk of teenage pregnancy in Burundi

33  Spatial distribution and predictive factors of antena- tal care in Burundi

34  Streptococcus agalactiae colonization is predomi- nant among pregnant women with HIV infection and is neither predicted by hospitals’ level nor trime- sters in Mwanza, Tanzania

35  Supporting the continuum of care with a coordinat- ed, multi-level digital referral system for people- centered care.

36  The Association between Human Papillomavirus and Cervical High-Grade Cytology among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Tanzanian Women: A Cross Sectional Study

37  The Distribution of Human Resources for Reproductive, Maternal, Neonatal, Child and Adolescents’ Health in Zanzibar, Tanzania

38  The impact of training on perceived performance in reproductive, maternal, and newborn health service delivery among healthcare workers in Tanzania: A baseline- and endline-survey.

39  The Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and risk factors among young adult female, Mbeya- Tanzania

40  Trend and Factors Associated With Early Antenatal Care Visit among Pregnant Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tanzania from 2004 to 2015/16

41  Understanding the Influence of Parent-adolescent Communication on Sexual and Reproductive Health Behavior of Adolescents in Uganda: A Case Study of Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

42  Use and Completeness of Partograph and Associated Factors in Mwanza Region; A Cross –Sectional Study in Public and Designated Hospitals

43  Use of social media influencers to increase uptake of HIV and SRH services uptake among adolescents

44  Utilization of over the counter medication and Herbal Remedies during pregnancy among women attending postnatal clinics: a cross-sectional study in Mbeya City, Tanzania.

45  Views of Secondary School Students on Adolescent Friendly Health Services in Level 2 Facilities in Mombasa County, Kenya

46  Factors Associated with Health Seeking Behavior for Reproductive Tract Infections among Young Street Females in Eldoret, Kenya.

47  Where and how do young people like to get their Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) informa- tion? Experiences from students in Higher Learning Institutions in Mbeya, Tanzania.

48  “By only considering the end product that means our participation has always been in vain” Defining benefits in HIV vaccine trials in Tanzania

49   A Clinicopathological Spectrum of Liver Disease among HIV Infected Individuals in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

50   Accelerated TB case finding through health system strengthening: A case of St Anthony Kibabii, Bungoma County

51  Prevalence and comorbidity of depression and alco- hol use disorder among youth in Rwanda

52  Analysis of local spatial-temporal distribution of ma- laria incidences in South Sudan with dynamic trans- mission from 2011-2018: Routine Data report

53  Antimicrobial Resistance profiles of bacterial patho- gens isolated from Cancer patients at Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Referral Hospital Oncology Clinic.

54  Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, Virulence Genes, and Genetic Diversity of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species Isolated From a Layer Poultry Farm in Korea

55  Antimycobacterial activity of Solanum torvum (Solanaceae) crude extracts

56  Bacterial cell penetrability and Hemotoxicity of pep- tides associated with antibacterial activity in African Catfish, Claris gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

57  Best practice on improving case finding at the health facility: a case of Helmi Jonas Health Centre.

58  Correlation of myeloperoxidase, neopterin and lipo- polysacharide binding protein as markers of envi- ronmental enteropathy between HIV infected and non-infected adults in Mwanza, Tanzania

59  Ethno medical knowledge and traditional use of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. for malaria among lo- cal communities in Jubek State of South Sudan: A cross-sectional survey

60  Evaluating two new oxazolidinones for tuberculosis treatment in the PanACEA-SUDOCU and -DECODE trials

61  Evaluation of The Effectiveness of Albendazole ther- apy for Soil Transmitted Nematodes Infections in Children and associated WASH factors, Kakamega, Kenya.

62  Exploring the situated rationalities of antibiotic dis- pensing practices among drug sellers in East Africa

63  Extended Spectrum -Lactamases Producing Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Enterobacter Spp. Colonizing Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Sickle Cell Disease and Diabetes Mellitus in Mwanza City, Tanzania

64  Facility-based directly observed therapy (DOT) for tuberculosis during COVID-19: a community perspective

65  Factors affecting uptake of HIV testing among sexual partners through index client modality among adults in Tanga region, Tanzania

66  Financial and social consequences of TB in the Mbeya and Songwe regions in Tanzania

67  Frequency of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine Resistance Associated Mutations in Plasmodium Falciparum Clinical Isolates From Kwale County, Kenya

68  Genetic diversity of transmission blocking vaccine candidates Pfs25, 230 and 48/45 gene in malaria en- demic, mesoendemic and epidemic regions of west- ern Kenya

69  Geospatial distribution of drug access points, drivers and implications on antibiotic use or misuse in East Africa

70  Health care providers practices in diagnosis and treatment of malaria in rural communities in Kisumu County, Kenya

71  High Burden of infections with schistosome and soil transmitted helminths among preschool children in Taita Taveta County, Kenya

72  HIV-1 Drug Resistant Mutations In Relation To Virologic Failure among Patients Attending Busia County Referral Hospital Kenya

73  Impact of parasite genomic dynamics as a result of drug pressure on the sensitivity of parasite isolates to currently used antimalarial drugs

74  Implementation and Client preferences on HIV dif- ferentiated service delivery models at rural public health facilities in Uganda.

75  Improving Diagnosis of Childhood TB: Preliminary Results on Fujilam and SPK from “Rapaed-TB”

76  Improving disease surveillance data analysis, inter-pretation, and use at the district level in Tanzania

77  Integrated malaria prevention in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

78  Investigation of a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kiruhura District, Uganda June 2021

79  Investigation of Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Uptake of Medically Assisted Therapy among People Who Inject Drugs in the Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study

80  Key factors influencing multidrug-resistant tubercu- losis in patients under anti-tuberculosis drugs in Kibumbu Sanatorium and Bujumbura anti-tubercu- losis Centres: A Mixt Effects Modelling Study in Burundi

81  Molecular Characterization of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci spp. Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Tanzania

82  Multidrug resistance and epidemiological cut-off values of Escherichia coli isolated from domesticated poultry and pigs reared in Mwanza, Tanzania

83  Non-Prescription antibiotics dispensing practices for patients with chronic UTI in community pharmacies and accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania: A simulated Clients Approach

84 Pathogenic Fungi From Bat Droppings Causing Histoplasmosis In Human In Southern West Of Tanzania: Mbeya Region. A Case Study

85  Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing E. coli from Human, Animals, and Environment using one- health approach in Tanzania.

86 Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 gene deletions in field isolates from areas of differ- ent malaria endemicities in Tanzania

87  Poor antibiotic dispensing practices for COVID like symptoms and lack of adherence to preventive mea- sures at community ADDOs and pharmacies in Mwanza, Tanzania

88  Praziquantel Therapy for Urogenital schistosomiasis in Pre-School Age Children of Kwale County: Assessment of Safety, Efficacy and Acceptability

89  Predominance of MDR Enterobacteriaceae causing UTI among symptomatic patients in East Africa: a call for action

90  Prevalence of and risk factors associated with HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus-type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhea infections among 18-24 year old students attending Higher Learning Institutions in Mbeya-Tanzania

91 Prevalence of Blood Stream Infections and Associated Factors among Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients on Chemotherapy at Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Tanzania

92  Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection among adult patients attending HIV clinic in Juba Teaching Hospital, South Sudan: Five years retrospective study; January, 2010-December, 2014.

93  Pulmonary function testing and predictive equa- tions in child population in Mbeya, Tanzania

94  Routine Tuberculosis testing surveillance system evaluation report at Central Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory (CTRL) – Muhimbili 2021.

95  Spatial and Spatio-temporal distribution of human respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza vi- rus, and human adenoviruses in Kenya 2007-2013

96  Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains to Selected Natural Products and Frontline Antibiotics

97 The Occurrence of Cystic Echinococcosis and Molecular Characterization from Livestock in Isiolo, Garissa and Wajir Counties, Kenya

98 Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) for the treatment of uncomplicated fal- ciparum malaria in Africa: a systematic review

99 Three Promising Antimycobacterial Medicinal Plants Reviewed As Potential Sources of Drug Hit Candidates against Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

100 Towards increasing vector control coverage: a semi-field evaluation of SkintexTM blankets, alone and in combination with Olyset LLIN, against pyre- throid-resistant An. gambiae

101  Traditional uses and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica, a case study of Kasese District, Western- Uganda

102  Treatment outcomes among Medically-Assisted Therapy clients, Mombasa-Kenya.

103  Treatment-seeking behaviours for symptoms of urinary tract infection in East Africa and irrational use of antibiotics: A mixed-methods study

104  Twenty Years of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities for Effective Management of Infectious Disease Epidemics

105  Ujiplus® deworming porridge: A novel home- grown approach to Africa’s national school deworming programs

106  Uptake, adherence and barriers to occupational post exposure prophylaxis for HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

107  Urogenital pathogens causing pyuria in clinically diagnosed UTI patients in selected sites in Tanzania: The need of increasing clinical suspicious index in culture negative UTI patients

108  Strategies, challenges and opportunities for addres- sing drugs and substance abuse: A cross-sectional survey in selected counties in Kenya

109  Acute Malnutrition among Children at Time of Cancer Diagnosis at a Paediatric Oncology Centre in South West Uganda

110  Cervical cancer screening among Women of Reproductive Age 25-49 years at Kitale County hospital, Kenya

111  Comparison of risk factors between people with type 2 diabetes and matched controls in Nairobi, Kenya

112  Computed tomography scan aspects of trauma of the face at Kira Hospital in Bujumbura: a retrospec- tive study

113  Depression and Associated Factors among Medical Residents in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study

114  Dietary consumption patterns and development of hypertension among rural and urban population of Kisii County, Kenya

115  Drug management of hypertensive patients hospi- talized at the Kamenge University Hospital in Burundi

116  Efficacy of Various Methods of Pesticides Reduction and Degradation Processes

117  Emergy Evaluation of Treatment Methods for Solid Medical Waste in Bujumbura-Burundi

118  Enhancing Healthcare Workers’ Capacity in Cancer and other Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) Care in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through e-Health Innovations: A Case of International Cancer Institute (ICI), Eldoret, Kenya

119 Is Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (Findrisc) Useful In Screening Type 2 Diabetes in African Setting? An Experience in Young-Adults from Urban Tanzania

120 Factors associated with adherence to anti-diabetic medication among persons with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic, Uganda, 2020

121 Validity and acceptability of the Kiswahili-paediat- ric gait, arms, legs and spine (pGALS) screening tool at a tertiary referral hospital in Kenya

122 Histopathological evaluation of chronic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: the association with clinical presentation, pathogenesis and management at a national cardiac institute.

123 Hyper-prevalence of sub-patent Plasmodium fal- ciparum infections in a rural area of western Kenya with declining malaria cases

124 In vitro efficacy of two microbial strains and physi- cochemical effects on their aflatoxin decontamina- tion in poultry feeds

125 Knowledge, attitude, and preparedness toward IPV care provision among nurses and midwives in Tanzania

126 Levels and correlates of physical activity and capac- ity among HIV-infected compared to HIV-unin- fected individuals

127 Low level of knowledge about cervical cancer among Ethiopian women: A systematic review and meta-analysis

128 Nurses’ and midwives’ awareness of intimate part- ner violence-related mental healthcare and associ- ated factors in Tanzania

129 Optimal cut-offs of four anthropometric measures and their predictive ability of diabetes in a national- ly representative Kenyan study

130 Poisoning Assessment and Patients’ Behavior Seeking Health Care within Urban and Rural Communities of Burundi.

131 Prevalence and factors associated with major de- pression among female sex workers in post-conflict Gulu district, Uganda: a cross-sectional study

132 Risk factors for impaired renal function in HIV- infected and HIV-uninfected adults in north-west- ern Tanzania

133 Role of knowledge and attitude in medical and dental students’ regarding use of shisha.

134 Snakebite Envenomation in Kenya: A Descriptive Spatiotemporal Analysis and Hotspots Detection

135 Strategies, challenges and opportunities for addres- sing drugs and substance abuse: A cross-sectional survey in selected counties in Kenya

136 The burden of Non-Communicable Diseases among Public Transport Workers in Tanzania

137 The burden, correlates and outcomes of left ventricular hypertrophy among young Africans with first ever stroke in Tanzania East African Health Research Journal | Volume 3 | Supplement 1

138  The Prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents in Juba City, 2018, South Sudan

139  To develop a sustainable continent - wide Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) resources for multidisciplinary research to increase understanding of SCD and im- prove health outcomes in Africa.

140  Tobacco smoking and development of hyperten- sion in urban and rural population of Kisii County, Kenya

141  A case report of Coarctation of the Aorta in the wake of COVID-19 complicating to brain aneurysm in Tanzania, a diagnostic and management challenge.

142  A Pilot Phase IB/II Study Of Whole-Lung Low Dose Radiation Therapy (LDRT) In the Treatment of Severe Covid 19 Pneumonia Patients On (Or Requiring) Mechanical Ventilatory Support.

143  Assessing Elderly Population Health Needs and health systems’ capacity for the implementation of Universal Health Coverage in Kenya

144  Choledocoduodenostomy for obstructive jaundice following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report.

145  Could Communities Help Achieve UHC- A Uganda Case Study.

146  Critical review of literature on health financing reforms in Uganda – progress, challenges and op- portunities for achieving UHC

147  Digestive stomas at Kamenge Teaching Hospital: Epidemiology, indications and evolution. About 49 cases

148  Digitalizing Tanzania’s health system: Co-developing a national digital health strategy and primary health care roadmap to achieve universal health coverage

149  Evaluation of effect of community dialogue meet- ings on self-efficacy, willingness to receive and atti- tude towards COVID-19 vaccine among district leaders’ in Rwenzori and Bunyoro regions, Uganda, May 2021

150  Experiences of Frontline Workers in Quarantine Sites for COVID-19 in Kenya, a Qualitative Study

151  Factors associated with medical student performance

152  Factors Predicting Mortality in Digestive Surgery of Elderly Patients at Kamenge Teaching Hospital.

153  Gendered effects of COVID- 19 related School Closures

154  Health diplomacy – a bridge to the internalization of the health financing progress matrix in Burundi

155  Health facilities’ readiness for safe surgical care pro- Republic of Congo during Ebola and COVID-19 era vision in Uganda and the Eastern Democratic

156  Integration of information and communication technology in COVID-19 pandemic response in Uganda

157  Navigating Emergency but Licit Procurement for Covid-19 Pandemic.

158 Perception and Challenges of Health Sciences Students towards E-Learning in a Sub-Saharan African Country – A Multi- Institutional Study

159 Quest for Universal Health Coverage in Kenya: Leveraging Legal Approaches

160 The use of stories-of-significant change to elucidate health systems changes with potential to inform universal health coverage national aspirations from six pilot counties in Kenya

161 User perspectives on the use of e-Compliance in monitoring Tuberculosis treatment adherence in Temeke, Tanzania

162  African Traditional/Herbal Medicine in the 21st Century: Research in this field at CTMDR-KEMRI, Kenya and a request for collaboration in the East African region

163  Assessment of Adverse Events Following COVID- 19 Immunization in Greater Kampala, Uganda, June, 2021

164  Burnout and Vicarious Trauma among Healthcare Workers Caring For Covid-19 Cases in Kenya.

165  Caring under COVID – 19: Is the Pandemic Changing Domestic Care giving Responsibilities and Relationships in Uganda?

166 Community mask wearing, predictors, experiences among rural households of Uganda: A mixed methods approach

167 Coping strategies among postgraduate medical stu- dents of the Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey

168 COVID-19 Cluster Investigation in Achwa Hydroelectric Power Plant, Pader District, Uganda- October 2020

169 COVID-19: Knowledge, Perception of Risk, Preparedness and Vaccine Acceptability among Healthcare Workers in Kenya

170 COVID-19 management outcomes at Kamenge Teaching Hospital: Study of confirmed and severe cases COVID-19 patients.

171 COVID-19 Pandemic and the Panic Buying Psychology

172 Epidemiological Assessment of COVID-19 Cluster among Attendees of a Church Activity in Omoro District, Northern Uganda, October 2020

173 Integrating social science approaches in response to COVID-19 pandemic

174 Knowledge, attitudes and Practices of Medical Student on Covid 19 in Burundi

175 Quality management systems, a bed rock for resil- ient Laboratory systems in the COVID-19 dispatch: A TASO Soroti regional project experience

176 Quality Verification and Traceability for COVID-19 Vaccines

177  Results from a Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perception Survey conducted in the Early Phase of the Covid-19 Pandemic, Kenya, 2020

178  Strengthening the use of health research in policy and decision-making process: Implications for COVID-19 response in Kenya

179  Unlocking MNO Data to Enhance Decision-Making and Emergency Response Efforts in Malawi

180  Use of a toll-free call center for COVID-19 response and continuity of essential services during the lock- down in Greater Kampala, Uganda, 2020

181  Using digital platforms in addressing dis-information and hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination in Uganda.

182   Vaccination status and COVID-19 disease symptom severity at admission: A hospital based retrospec- tive cross-section study in Kampala, Uganda

183   What Kenyans know and believe about Covid-19 vaccines: Evidence from a nationwide survey

S1  Health Technologies in Africa: Introducing the Platform for Dialogue and Action on Health Technologies in Africa

S2 Weathering The Pandemic Storm: Building Strong, Sustainable And Equitable Immunization Systems In East Africa

S3 Universal Health Coverage: Status of the Health Universal Coverage in East Africa: Challenges and Solutions to attain SDG3


The East African Health Research Journal (EAHRJ) is a no-fee, open-access, peer-reviewed journal published at www.eahealth.org. Established by the East African Health Research Commission (EAHRC) of the East African Community (EAC; www.eac.int), the primary aim of the journal is to present evidence that can be the basis for better health policy and practice in the countries of the EAC. Specifically, the journal aims to:

  • Represent the East African perspective on health and health related-issues
  • Provide information that is relevant to the EAC
  • Be a platform for sharing and dissemination of knowledge
  • Enable scholarly recognition of professionals and institutions
  • Support professionals’ career development
  • Provide forum for health professionals from East Africa to be more visible globally
  • Provide direction in setting up health priorities in the region

The EAHRJ will promote and facilitate the application of knowledge from research to strengthen national and regional health policy and practice; development of human-resource capacities and skills; exchange and dissemination of health-research information; and advocacy of evidence generated from health research. Issues of the journal will include original articles, reviews, short communications, surveys, commentaries, supplementary issues, and reports, and cover a broad range of health and related aspects, including medicine, geo-medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, veterinary science, food science, environment, health-related agriculture science, and public health.

The EAHRJ will be published three times a year online, at www.eahealth.org, and in hard copy. Hard copies will be distributed to all relevant stakeholders, such as government institutions and organisations, research institutions, academic institutions, relevant NGOs, civil society organisations, etc. We expect that this journal will add value to the various initiatives taken to improve health and wellbeing of the people of East Africa and the world in general.


Fabian Mashauri, MSc, PhD; Principal Health Officer, East African Health Research Commission, Burundi


Novat Twungubumwe, MD, MSc; Principal Health Officer East African Health Research Commission, Burundi


Sandra Nkurunziza, MD, MPH; University of Burundi, Burundi

Judy Mwai, MSc, PhD; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

Vincent Mutabazi, MBChB, MSc; Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Rwanda

Benon Asiimwe, MSc, PhD, MPH; Makerere University, Uganda

Tolbert Sonda MSc, PhD; Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Tanzania

Ndekya Oriyo, MSc, PhD; National Institute of Medical Research, Tanzania



Steve Wandiga, MSc, PhD; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya


Zaidi Mkangwa, BSc, MSc; East African Health Research Commission, Burundi

The East African Health Research Journal
is a no-fee, open-access, peer-reviewed journal published online at www.eahealth.org. It is published three times per year by the East African Health Research Commission, an institution of the East African Community, P.O. Box 350, Bujumbura, Burundi. The journal is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (www.usaid.gov) and the East African Community (www.eac.int). EAHRJ is editorially independent and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of the East African Community.

The East African Health Research Journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. For further information, please contact the editors at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


You are invited to submit your manuscript to the EAHRJ.

EAHRJ publishes original articles, reviews, short communications, surveys, commentaries, supplementary issues, and reports. These articles cover a broad range of health and related aspects, including medicine, geo-medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, veterinary science, food science, environment, health-related agriculture science, and public health.

Note that EAHRC is working with the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP) to publish the EAHRJ. CCP publishes the Global Health: Science and Practice Journal (GHSP). 


Evans Amukoye, MD, MMed;
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

Prince Ngongo Bahati, MS, MBA; Gates Foundation, USA

John Bartlett, MD; Duke University, USA

Leodegal Bazira, MD, PhD; University of Burundi, Burundi

Agnes Binagwaho, MD, MMed, PhD; University of Global Health Equity, Rwanda

Paul Erasto Kazyoba, MSc, PhD; National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania

Sam Kariuki, DVM, PhD;
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

Gibson Kibiki, MD, MMed, PhD; Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Tanzania

Andrew Kitua, MD, PhD; BroadReach Health Development, Tanzania

Patrick Kyamanywa, MBChB, MMed, MPH; Kampala International University, Uganda

Edda Tandi Lwoga, MSc, PhD; College of Business Education, Tanzania

Jean Baptiste Mazarati, PhD; Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Rwanda

Yunus D. Mgaya, MSc, PhD, FTAAS; National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania

Stella Mpagama, MD, MSc, PhD; Kibong’oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

Patricia Munseri, MD, MMed, PhD; Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences, Tanzania

Jean De Dieu Ngirabega, MD, MSc, PhD; Ruli Higher Institute of Health, Rwanda

Joseph Nyandwi, MBChB, MSc, PhD; National Institute of Public Health, Burundi

Jenny Renju, MSc, PhD;
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK

Wilber Sabiiti, MSc, PhD; University of St Andrews, UK

Kihumbu Thairu, MBChB, FRCP, PhD; University of Nairobi, Kenya

Gabriel Upunda, MD, MPH; Tanzania Medical Council, Tanzania

Fred Were, MBChB, MMed, PhD; University of Nairobi, Kenya

Alimuddun Zumla, MD, FRCP; University College London, UK



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Please submit your paper through our online submission system (see Submit Manuscript above). After creating an account, the online system will ask you to enter information about your paper, such as the title, abstract, and author names. Then you will be instructed to upload your title page, paper, and any accompanying figures, tables, photos, and supplementary materials.

Please upload the main paper with references as either a Microsoft Word document (DOC, DOCX) or in rich text format (RTF). Please double space your paper and number the pages (but do not include line numbers). Because EAHRJ operates a double-blind peer review system, we ask that you do not include any author-identifying information in the main paper (including acknowledgements) or in the filenames. Instead, upload a separate title page with the title of your paper and author names and affiliations.

Each illustration, figure, and photo should be numbered and uploaded separately, preferably in the format in which it was originally created (such as Microsoft Excel or PowerPoint or in a graphics software), not embedded or copied and pasted into the paper. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that these images are at a high enough resolution to produce good-quality reproduction in the published article. Resolution of photos should be approximately 300 dpi (dots per inch), and line or halftone figures and illustrations should be approximately 600 dpi. If you submit photographs with identifiable people or if you are reproducing illustrations/figures from another source and do not own the copyright to those illustrations, you must also submit a form to grant permission to GHSP to use those images before final publication. (We will send you this form during the copyediting phase if your article is accepted for publication.)

Tables should also be numbered and submitted separately, not embedded in the paper. You may upload each table individually or include all tables in one file.

Text boxes can be included in the main paper file, with an indication of the start and end of the box, or as a separate file.

Footnotes should generally be avoided. Such statements can usually be incorporated into the body of the paper as a parenthetical statement.

Conflict of Interest

All authors must complete the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. You do not need to submit the forms to the Journal. Instead, the corresponding author should keep the forms on file in the event that a question arises about competing interests related to your submission. The online submission system will ask you, however, to declare any competing interests for all authors, based on the ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form. If there are no competing interests, please indicate, “None declared.”

In general, papers should be prepared in accordance with the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Open Access Policy

EAHRJ applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles without permission, so long as the original authors and source are cited.

Peer-reviewers Policy

East African Health Research Journal (EAHRJ) operates a double-blind peer review system, in which the identities of both reviewers and authors are concealed from each other throughout the review process.

EAHRJ contains peer-reviewed articles, original articles, reviews, book reviews, short communications, surveys, commentaries, opinions on policy or practice, essays, reports, etc., from East Africa. It covers the wide range of subjects and issues in the health sector ranging from medicine, geo-medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, veterinary science, food science, health-related agriculture science, health professionals, etc., that provide evidence for improving health policy and practice.

When manuscripts are submitted for publication consideration to the EAHRJ, they are first screened by members of the scientific editorial team. If manuscripts meet the minimum standard of the EAHRJ, they are then assigned four peer-reviewers. Submitted manuscripts undergo double-blind peer review. The EAHRJ editorial board has established a pool of twenty (20) permanent peer-reviewers from five East African Community Partner States. This permanent pool of reviewers meets once a year to discuss challenges and suggest recommendations to improve the review process. In addition to the pool of permanent peer-reviewers, the EAHRJ also engages scholars from Health Research Institutions and teaching hospitals from EAC Partner States.

Original Articles, Reviews/Meta-Analyses, Field Action Reports, Technical Notes, and Methodological papers are considered appropriate for publication when have been reviewed by at least 2 peer-reviewers. Short communications, commentaries, opinions on policy or practice, essays, reports are considered appropriate for publication when they have been reviewed by at least one peer-reviewer.

The EAHRJ gives reviewers twenty one (21) working days to review a manuscript and submit their comments. The authors are susequently given fourteen (14) working days to respond to reviewers' comments. This turnaround time can be extended upon request from reviewers/authors. If the decision is for revision, authors are requested to respond to comments raised by reviewers. The Deputy Editor-in-Chief reviews the author's responses to ensure that the author has adequately responded to all comments raised by peer-reviewers. Reviewers are then informed of the status of the manuscripts they have reviewed.

If the decision is for revision, the author is requested to address each comment by the reviewers, and submit a letter outlining their responses accompanying their revised manuscript. The assigned editor will re-evaluate the revisions and will either make a decision or submit the manuscript for a second round of review, usually to the original set of reviewers. Reviewers will be informed of the outcome of manuscripts which they have reviewed.

The role of peer reviewers is to recommend acceptance – either with or without revision or resubmission–or rejection of papers.

In the case of discordant reviews, the Deputy Editor-in-Chief may seek review by an additional expert/reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection taking into account reviewers’ recommendations.

Publication of articles by the East African Health Research Journal is primarily dependent on their clarity, and potential impact, as judged by peer-reviewers and the editorial team. The main criteria on which peer reviewers will assess the manuscripts include:

  • Importance and relevance of the topic
  • Originality of the work that adds value to the existing body of knowledge
  • Substance
  • Sound study (or program) design and methodology (or implementation)
  • Sound use of evidence
  • Compelling conclusions that are actionable and based on the evidence presented
  • Presentation and clarity of writing

Manuscripts will be sent to a statistician for additional review if necessary based on recommendations from the reviewers and the Deputy Editor-in-Chief.

Author Fees

EAHRJ does not charge any fees to authors to submit or publish articles in our journal. (Post-publication changes, which are very rare, may be subject to a nominal fee.)


For further information, please contact the editors at eahrj.editor[at]gmail.com


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East African Community
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Tel: +255 (0)27 216 2100
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