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Volume 1 Issue 2 | July 2017



Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection Among HIV-1-Infected Patients in Kenya
Duncan Ndegwa Maina, Andrew Kimanga Nyerere, Ruth Wambui Gicho, Joseph Maina Mwangi, Raphael Wekesa Lihana

Seroprevalence and Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Laboratory Workers at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania
Richard E Machange, Dominic Mosha, Jeremia J Pyuza, Balthazar B Nyombi, Elichilia R Shao

Factors Associated With Toxoplasma Gondii IgG and IgM Antibodies, and Placental Histopathological Changes Among Women With Spontaneous Abortion in Mwanza City, Tanzania
Illuminata Machumi, Mariam M Mirambo, Deodatus Ruganuza, Peter Rambau, Anthony N Massinde, Albert Kihunrwa, Stephen E Mshana, Domenica Morona
TORCH Antibodies Among Pregnant Women and Their Newborns Receiving Care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania
Aliasgher M Saajan, Mramba Nyindo, Joshua G Gidabayda, Mohammed S Abdallah, Grace D Kinabo, Shaneabbas H Jaffer, Aliasgher G Mukhtar, Tima M Khatibu, Rune Philemon, Blandina T Mmbaga

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Risks Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among University Students in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study
Brenda Kharono, Ruth Nabisere, Nabyonga Kiddu Persis, Jackie Nakakeeto, Abraham Openy, Sabrina Bakeera Kitaka

Implementing a Global Health Qualitative Research Study: Experiences of a Project Coordinator in Uganda
Jasmine Kastner, Cecilia Milford, Cecilia Akatukwasa, Annet Kembabazi, Jenni Smit

Health System Barriers to Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling Services for Infants and Children: A Qualitative Study From 2 Districts in Njombe, Tanzania
Gasto Frumence, Sirili Nathanaeli

Sociodemographic and Other Characteristics Associated With Behavioural Risk Factors of HIV Infection Among Male Mountain Climbing Porters in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Jenipher E Lyamuya, Bernard Njau, Damian J Damian, Tara Mtuy



The East African Health Research Journal (EAHRJ) is a no-fee, open-access, peer-reviewed journal published at www.eahealth.org. Established by the East African Health Research Commission (EAHRC) of the East African Community (EAC; www.eac.int), the primary aim of the journal is to present evidence that can be the basis for better health policy and practice in the countries of the EAC. Specifically, the journal aims to:

  • Represent the East African perspective on health and health related-issues
  • Provide information that is relevant to the EAC
  • Be a platform for sharing and dissemination of knowledge
  • Enable scholarly recognition of professionals and institutions
  • Support professionals’ career development
  • Provide forum for health professionals from East Africa to be more visible globally
  • Provide direction in setting up health priorities in the region

The EAHRJ will promote and facilitate the application of knowledge from research to strengthen national and regional health policy and practice; development of human-resource capacities and skills; exchange and dissemination of health-research information; and advocacy of evidence generated from health research. Issues of the journal will include original articles, reviews, short communications, surveys, commentaries, supplementary issues, and reports, and cover a broad range of health and related aspects, including medicine, geo-medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, veterinary science, food science, environment, health-related agriculture science, and public health.

The EAHRJ will be published three times a year online, at www.eahealth.org, and in hard copy. Hard copies will be distributed to all relevant stakeholders, such as government institutions and organisations, research institutions, academic institutions, relevant NGOs, civil society organisations, etc. We expect that this journal will add value to the various initiatives taken to improve health and wellbeing of the people of East Africa and the world in general.


Gibson Kibiki, MD, MMed, PhD, Executive Secretary, East African Health Research Commission, Burundi


Fabian Mashauri, MSc, PhD, Principal Health Officer, East African Health Research Commission, Burundi


Evans Amukoye, MD, MMed, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

Jean De Dieu Ngirabega, MD, MSc, PhD, East African Health Research Commission, Tanzania

Vincent Mutabazi, MBChB, MSc, Rwanda Biomedical Center, Rwanda

Joseph Nyandwi, MBChB, PhD, MSc, University of Burundi, Republic of Burundi

Ndekya Oriyo, MSc, PhD, National Institute of Medical Research, Tanzania


Harriet Nabudere, MBChB, MPH, Uganda National Health Research Organisation, Uganda

The East African Health Research Journal is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Knowledge for Health Project and the East African Community. EAHRJ is editorially independent and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of the East African Community.

The East African Health Research Journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. For further information, please contact the editors at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


You are invited to submit your manuscript to the EAHRJ.

EAHRJ publishes original articles, reviews, short communications, surveys, commentaries, supplementary issues, and reports. These articles cover a broad range of health and related aspects, including medicine, geo-medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, veterinary science, food science, environment, health-related agriculture science, and public health.

Note that EAHRC is working with the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP) to publish the EAHRJ. CCP publishes the Global Health: Science and Practice Journal (GHSP). 


Frank Møller Aarestrup, DVM, PHD, Technical University, Denmark

Peter Arimi, MD, MSc, US Agency for International Development, Kenya

Prince Ngongo Bahati, MS, MBA, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Kenya

Muhammad Bakari, MD, MMed, PhD Ministry of Health, Tanzania

John Bartlett, MD, Duke University, USA

Leodegal Bazira, MD, PhD, University of Burundi, Burundi

Agnes Binagwaho, MD, MMED, PhD, University of Global Health Equity, Rwanda

Martin Boeree, MD, PhD, Radboud University Medical Center, The Netherlands

Stephen Gillespie, MD, FRCP, University of St Andrews, UK

Ben Hammel, MD, PhD, Radboud University Medical Center, The Netherlands

Eric Houpt, MD, University of Virginia, USA

Stephen Kinoti, MD, MMed, PhD, Fionet Corporation, USA

Andrew Kitua, MD, PhD, USAID, Uganda

Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, MBChB, MMed, PhD, Makerere University, Uganda

Patricia Munseri, MD, MMED, PhD, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences, Tanzania

Kisali Pallangyo, MD, MMed, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences, Tanzania

Kihumbu Thairu, MBChB, FRCP, PhD, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Thor Theander, MD, DSc, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Gabriel Upunda, MD, MPH, Tanzania Medical Council, Tanzania

Andre Van Der Ven, MD, PhD, Radboud University Medical Centre, The Netherlands

Fred Were, MBChB, MMed, PhD, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Alimuddun Zumla, MD, FRCP, University College London, UK



EAHRJ accepts articles written in English; spelling should be based on British English. The Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (previously referred to as the "Uniform Requirements"), published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), provides useful guidelines to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for publication. For additional details not covered in the ICMJE Recommendations, EAHRJ refers to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style (10th edition), published by the American Medical Association and Oxford University Press.

We do not set explicit limits on the length of papers submitted, but we encourage authors to be concise in order to reach our audience effectively. In some cases, providing more detail in appendices may be appropriate.

Formatting approaches such as subheadings, lists, tables, figures, and highlighting key concepts are highly encouraged. Summaries and single-sentence tag lines or headlines—abstracted sentences containing keywords that convey the essential messages—are also standard.


EAHRJ follows the AMA references style. Please try to adhere to this style as much as possible. You can consider using reference management software, such as Mendeley (free), EndNote, or RefWorks, which include a built-in style for AMA, making it easier for authors to format citations and the reference list including making automated changes during revision stages.

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript. Note that if you are using the footnote/endnote feature in Microsoft Word, it will create a new reference number for each citation that you make. But if you need to cite the same reference multiple times in your paper, you will need to use the same citation number rather than creating a new footnote/endnote each time which will generate a new citation number. You can manually insert the superscripted number in these instances. Include a list of all references cited at the end of the article, in the order in which they were mentioned in the text.


Please submit your paper through our online submission system (see Submit Manuscript above). After creating an account, the online system will ask you to enter information about your paper, such as the title, abstract, and author names. Then you will be instructed to upload your title page, paper, and any accompanying figures, tables, photos, and supplementary materials.

Please upload the main paper with references as either a Microsoft Word document (DOC, DOCX) or in rich text format (RTF). Please double space your paper and number the pages (but do not include line numbers). Because EAHRJ operates a double-blind peer review system, we ask that you do not include any author-identifying information in the main paper (including acknowledgements) or in the filenames. Instead, upload a separate title page with the title of your paper and author names and affiliations.

Each illustration, figure, and photo should be numbered and uploaded separately, preferably in the format in which it was originally created (such as Microsoft Excel or PowerPoint or in a graphics software), not embedded or copied and pasted into the paper. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that these images are at a high enough resolution to produce good-quality reproduction in the published article. Resolution of photos should be approximately 300 dpi (dots per inch), and line or halftone figures and illustrations should be approximately 600 dpi. If you submit photographs with identifiable people or if you are reproducing illustrations/figures from another source and do not own the copyright to those illustrations, you must also submit a form to grant permission to GHSP to use those images before final publication. (We will send you this form during the copyediting phase if your article is accepted for publication.)

Tables should also be numbered and submitted separately, not embedded in the paper. You may upload each table individually or include all tables in one file.

Text boxes can be included in the main paper file, with an indication of the start and end of the box, or as a separate file.

Footnotes should generally be avoided. Such statements can usually be incorporated into the body of the paper as a parenthetical statement.

Conflict of Interest

All authors must complete the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. You do not need to submit the forms to the Journal. Instead, the corresponding author should keep the forms on file in the event that a question arises about competing interests related to your submission. The online submission system will ask you, however, to declare any competing interests for all authors, based on the ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form. If there are no competing interests, please indicate, “None declared.”

In general, papers should be prepared in accordance with the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Open Access Policy

EAHRJ applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles without permission, so long as the original authors and source are cited.

Author Fees

EAHRJ does not charge any fees to authors to submit or publish articles in our journal. (Post-publication changes, which are very rare, may be subject to a nominal fee.)


For further information, please contact the editors at eahrj.editor[at]gmail.com


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